Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Developing a research framework to inform an evidence base for person-centered medicine: keeping the person at the centre

Corinne Reid


Person-centered medicine exists at the intersect of science and humanism and has the dual goals of relational and evidence-based practice. In the operationalization of humanistic medicine the development of a sympathetic and facilitative research framework is, then, a priority. The person-centric research framework is proffered as one such model and will be described in this paper with a view to eliciting discussion about the essential qualities of a person-centered approach to evidence generation. This framework has been emergent from the clinical practice of the author and builds upon other pioneering work in this field. It is operationalized as a practitioner-informed philosophy of the conceptualisation, practice and interpretation of research.


person-centered evidence-based practice, person-centered medicine, person-centered research, person-centered scientist-practitioner

Full Text:



Wilkins, P. (2010). Researching in a person-centered way. In: Person-centered and Experiential Therapies Work. M. Cooper, J. Watson & D. Holldampf. (Eds). Oxford: Wiley.

Cooper, M., Watson, J. & Holldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and Experiential Therapies Work: A review of the research on counselling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.

Baggerley, J., Ray, D. & Bratton, S. (2010). Child-centered Play Therapy Research: The evidence base for effective practice. New Jersey: Wiley.

McLeod, J. (2011). Qualitative research in Counselling and Psychotherapy. Second edition. London: Sage.

Messer, S.B. (2004). Evidence-based practice: Beyond empirically supported treatments. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 35 (6) 580-588.

Westen, D. & Weinberger, J. (2005). In praise of clinical judgement: Meehl’s forgotten legacy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 61 (10) 1257-1276.

Westen, D, & Morrison, K. (2001). A multidimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic, and generalized anxiety disorder: An empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 69 (6) 875-899.

Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. & Miller, S.D. (Eds.) (1999). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Lambert, M.J. & Barley, D.E. (2002). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome in Norcross, J.C. (Ed). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients, pp. 17-32. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bergin, A. (1997). Neglect of the therapist and the human dimensions of change: A commentary. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 4 (1) 83-89.

Beutler, L. (1989). The misplaced role of theory in psychotherapy integration. Journal of Integrative & Eclectic Psychotherapy. 8 (1) 17-22.

Lambert, M.J. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for integrative and eclectical therapists. In: Handbook of psychotherapy integration. J. Norcross & M. Goldfried (Eds), pp. 94-129. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Wampold, B.E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kippax, S. & Stephenson, N. (2005). Meaningful evaluation of sex and relationship education. Sex Education 5 (4) 359–373.

Norcross, J.C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. New York: Oxford University Press

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications: California.

Mahoney, C. (1997). Common qualitative methods. Retrieved October 24, 2004, from

Gilbourne, D. (2000). Searching for the nature of Action Research: A response to Evans, Hardy and Fleming. The Sport Psychologist 14, 207-214.

Anderson, A.G., Knowles, Z., & Gilbourne, D. (2004). Reflective practice for sport psychologists: Concepts, models, practical implications, and thoughts on dissemination. The Sport Psychologist 18 (2) 188-203.

Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In: Handbook of qualitative research. N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), pp. 485-499. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Glesne, C. & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains: Longman Publishers.

Hammersley, M. & Atkinson, P. (1983). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge.

Maykut, P. & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide. Oxford: The Falmer Press.

Reid, C. (2005). Tending the flame: Personality, Self-actualisation and the Olympic Journey. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Murdoch University, Western Australia.

Gendlin, E.T. (1986). What comes after traditional psychotherapy research? American Psychologist 41 (2) 131-136.

Barrett-Lennard, G.T. (2003). Steps on a mindful journey: Person-centred expressions. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.

Barrett-Lennard, G.T. (2005). Relationship at the centre: Healing in a troubled world. London: Whurr Publishers.

McLeod, J. (2001). An administratively created reality: Some problems with the use of self-report questionnaire measures of adjustment in counselling/psychotherapy outcome research. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research 1 (3) 215-226.

Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2010). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Teddlie, C. & Tashakkori, A. (2011). Mixed methods: Contemporary issues in an emerging field. In: Handbook of qualitative research (4th edn.). N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chatterji, M. (2005). Evidence on “what works”: an argument for extended term mixed-method (ETMM) evaluation designs. Educational Researcher 34 (5) 14-24.

Kazdin, A. (2003). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Annual Review of. Psychology 54, 253-276.

Berkowitz, S. (1997). Analysing qualitative data. In: User Friendly Handbook for Mixed Method Evaluations. Sharp, L. & Fretchling, J. (Eds). National Science Foundation (NSF). Directorate for education and human resources (HER). Retrieved October 24, 2004, from

Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods (2nd edn.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.

Yoshioka, M.R. (1999). The use of developmental research methods to design culturally competent interventions. Journal of Multicultural Social Work 8 (3/4) 113-128.

Mellor, N. (2001). Messy method: The unfolding story. Educational Action Research 9 (3) 465-484.

Frechtling, J. & Sharp, L. (Eds). (1997). User-Friendly Handbook for Mixed Method Evaluations. National Science Foundation (NSF). Directorate for Education and Human Resources (HER).

Spotts & Schontz, in Pervin, L.A. (1984). Idiographic approaches to personality. In: Personality and the behavioral disorders. 2nd edn., Vol. 1, pp. 261-282. N.S. Endler. & J.S. Hunt. (Eds.). New York: Wiley.

Datta, L. (1990). Case study evaluations. (Vol. Transfer Paper 10.1.9.). Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, US Government.

Lamiell, J.T. (1981). Toward an idiothetic psychology of personality. The American Psychologist 36 (3) 276-289.

Dunn, J.G.H. (1994). Toward the combined use of nomothetic and idiographic methodologies in sport psychology: An empirical example. The Sport Psychologist 8, 376-392.

Tenenbaum, G. & Bar-Eli, M. (1992). Methodological issues in sport psychology research. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 24, 44-50.

Reid, C. & Anderson, M. (2006). PROJECT K.I.D.S: Exploring the cognitive, social and emotional development of 7-11 year old children. Bristish Psychological Society, Clinical conference, London, December 15-16th.

Reid, C., Anderson, M., French, N., Hagan, R. & Davis, S. (2008). PROJECT KIDS: Unravelling the sequalae of premature birth. World Congress of Health Professionals, Perth Convention Centre, March 26-29.

Richardson, C., Anderson, M., Reid, C.L. & Fox, A.M. (2011). Neural indicators of error processing and intraindividual variability in reaction time in 7 and 9 year olds. Developmental Psychobiology 53, 256-265.

Fox, A.M., Anderson, M., Reid, R., Smith, T. & Bishop, D.M.V. (2010). Maturation of auditory temporal integration and inhibition assessed with event-related potentials (ERPs). BMC Neuroscience 11, 49.



  • There are currently no refbacks.